Sunday, November 10, 2019
European-English language Essay
As Ammon Ulrich puts it, the English language is the most hospitable languages in the world because of its character for being open to other languages (2002). The English language accepts words and expressions from other languages. It even borrows the native words and expressions of some countries. Such hospitability of the English language can be proved by appealing to the etymologies found in some English terms (Algeo & Pyles 2004). Yet, he argued that such hospitability does not entail humbleness. In fact, he argued that the English language has started to dominate the world by making the world accustomed to use and speak the English language (Ammon 2002). The sixteenth, seventeenth and the eighteenth century signaled the rise of the English language in Europe (Anderman & Rogers 2005). These periods marked the impeccable influence of the English language in the European civilizations. Because of trades and shipping businesses, it was said that Europe had increasingly exposed themselves on the English language (Phillipson 2003). The nineteenth century made almost all of the European languages to have distinct affinity with the English language likewise the European languages include vocabularies and terms that were derived from the English language (Anderman & Rogers 2005). In the twentieth century, England took a very significant role in expanding the influence of the English language in the whole European region. Because of cultural relations, economic transactions, and global communications, English had truly penetrated Europe. There was this mixed European and English language Ã¢â¬â combination of structures, terms, expressions and styles of the two languages (Anderman & Rogers 2005). Nonetheless, in this period, English does not have any special place in European countries. It is not even regarded as an official language by other European countries (Phillipson 2003). Though there are some countries which used English as their native language. There are countries in Europe which are opposed with the idea of translating files and documents from their native language into English (Ammon 2002). Bilingualism is allowed in the European region (Phillipson 2003). However; European countries do not think that making the English language as their official language would make significant change for them. As a result, they refuse to consider translations of newspapers, official documents and declarations into the English language. There are separate editions and issues of magazines that are printed and published in English (Ammon 2002). According to the European Union, though the English language has truly proven its importance in international business and communication, it does not necessarily mean that they would ardently adopt it (Anderman & Rogers 2005). What happened is that, European countries, together with their cultures, reconstructed the English language with their own native language. For example, the combination of French and English is called Franglais. The combination of German and English is Denglish, Spanish and English is Spanglish, Dutch and English is Nederengels (Anderman & Rogers 2005). Besides this reconstruction or the mixing of European languages and the English language, the European Union announces that although the English language is key factor in business communication, local cultures and communication should be first considered. Consequently, English is only regarded as an ordinary language used and spoken by the people in Europe (Stavans 2002). CrawfordÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Heritage Languages in America: Tapping a Ã¢â¬ËHiddenÃ¢â¬â¢ ResourceÃ¢â¬ English Language is known as the official language of America (Crawford 1999). All the states of America use and speak of it. There is no such thing as native language except for the fact that America has been inhibited by many other people with different nationalities and cultures (Cheshire 2007). It is tagged as the melting pot of the world. For this reason, it is undeniable that every attempt to come near it would mean exposing oneself from the very influential power of the American culture including the use of the English language (Crawford 1999). According to James Crawford, it is inevitable that the world would bend over the English language (1999). Evidently, one cannot survive in the international scene without knowing how to speak and understand English. As repeatedly mentioned in this paper, international communication requires the English language (Crystal 2003). He stressed in his arguments his contention to those countries which try to establish an anti-bilingual campaign (Crawford 1999). It is to be noted that there are really bills and laws that are currently against the use of English as a second language. He saw no logical reason for pushing such campaign. American people honor and recognize the role of the English language. They see how it significantly affects their lives and the world. No matter how the English language is differently used and spoken by different countries in the world, no doubt that it pushes the world to take big leaps with regards to technological, scientific, political and mostly economic advancements. English language-policy system in America is geared towards the unification of native tribes and groups with the whole of America (Johnson, 2000). It does not really undermine or debilitate native languages. It serves as the key weapon in improving the lives of the people, and making them realize that the world is really moving towards modernization and globalization. There is no way that the English language would not affect the international relations of the world (Cheshire 2007). However, according to James Crawford, it does not imply that other languages would be thrown out of the picture. He insisted that native languages should be tied up with the native languages so as to preserve the culture and heritage of particular regions and groups in America while making efforts to advance the quality of life they have (Crawford 1999). Conclusion The English Language cannot really own by one nation. In fact it is not exclusively owned by any one. It is a freelancer language which tends to be accessible to all that needs a common medium for particular and specific purpose. The research studies presented in this paper proves that the English language has really penetrated the international scene Ã¢â¬â leaving either good or bad effects. More so, its evolution took place in the midst of criticisms and oppositions against it. China, Japan, Europe and America admitted that the English language significantly takes part in every transformation of the world. It is a very dynamic language which allows the assimilation and inclusion of almost every other languages and culture. Bilingualism may be seen as problem or threat for others. Nonetheless, bilingualism opens the door for better communication. References: Algeo, J. , & Pyles, T 2004, The Origins and Development of the English Language (5th ed. ), Heinle. Ammon, U 2002, English As An Academic Language In Europe: A Survey Of Its Use In Teachin,. Peter Lang Publishing. Anderman, G. M. , & Rogers, M 2005, In And Out Of English: For Better, For Worse? (Translating Europe, Multilingual Matters Limited. Brownell, J. A1967, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s second language;: A critical study of the English language program in the Japanese secondary schools in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, National Council of Teachers of English. Burchfield, R 2003, The English Language,. Oxford University Press. 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